SQL Server File Locations for Default Instances

Each Instance of SQL Server has its own set of Executables (sqlservr.exe) and Data Files. The file locations for the default instance are different depending upon the version installed. Essentially, this is to allow multiple versions of SQL Server to happily co-existing on the same server.

The table below lists the default file locations (as they appear on my systems).

Version Location of Database Engine Additional Instances Service Names
SQL Server 2000  & MSDE(v8) C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL MSSQL$MyInstance MSSQLSERVER; MSSQL$MyInstance
SQL Server 2005 (v9) C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL.1\ MSSQL.2; MSSQL.3…
SQL Server 2005 Express (v9) C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL.1\ MSSQL.2; MSSQL.3…
SQL Server 2008 (v10) C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL10.MSSQLSERVER MSSQL10.MyInstance SQL Server (MSSQLSERVER); SQL Server (MyInstance)
SQL Server 2008 Express (v10) C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL10.SQLEXPRESS MSSQL10.MyInstance
SQL Server 2008 R2 (v10.25; v10.5) C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL10_50.MSSQLSERVER MSSQL10_50.MyInstance SQL Server (MyInstance)
SQL Server 2008 R2 Reporting Services (v10.25; v10.5) C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSRS10_50.MSSQLSERVER MSSQL10_50.MyInstance SQL Server (MyInstance)
SQL Server 2008 R2 Express (v10.25; v10.5) C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL10_50.SQLEXPRESS MSSQL10_50.MyInstance
SQL Server 2012 Express (v11) C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL11.SQLEXPRESS MSSQL11.MyInstance SQL Server (MyInstance)
SQL Server 2014 Express (v12) C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL12.SQLEXPRESS MSSQL12.MyInstance SQL Server (MyInstance)

 

Common Files
Additionally, multiple instances (within each version) share some common files.

Version Location of Common Files Notes
Common Files (2000) C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\80\
Common Files (2005) C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\90\ The 2005 installation also creates an  “80” folder.
Common Files (2008) C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\100\
Common Files (2012) C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\110\
Common Files (2014) C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\120\

 

The Browser Service
There is only ever one copy of the SQL Browser Service running (and it always lives in the same folder). Normally, it will be automatically upgraded to whichever is the latest installed version of SQL Server.

The Browser Service listens for requests on UDP Port 1434 on behalf of all the installed SQL Server Instances that are installed on the Server (irrespective of version).

Version Location of Browser Service Notes
SQL Server 2000 Listener Service Requires SQL Server 2000 SP3a
SQL Server 2005 Browser Service C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\90\Shared\sqlbrowser.exe Version 2005.90.5000.0
SQL Server 2008 Browser Service C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\90\Shared\sqlbrowser.exe Version 2007.100.5500.0
SQL Server 2008 R2 Browser Service C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\90\Shared\sqlbrowser.exe Version 2009.100.1600.1
SQL Server 2012 Browser Service C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\90\Shared\sqlbrowser.exe Version 2011.110.2100.60
SQL Server 2014 Browser Service C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\90\Shared\sqlbrowser.exe Version 2014.120.2000.8

 

64 Bit Windows
Within 64 Bit Windows, some files may be installed within “Program Files (86)” rather than “Program Files”.

SQL Server Compact Edition
These editions have very little in common with the SQL family as discussed in this document. SQL Server Compact Edition does not run as a service, nor is there any concept of database instances. The default installation directory is “C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server Compact Edition\” and a file type of “sdf” is used for each data store.

XAMPP: Using MySQLDump to Backup MySQL on Windows Server 2003 and Windows 7

I couldn’t find anything specific for Backing up the MySQL Databases within XAMPP. There certainly isn’t a pre-configured routine available. In addition, MySQL Workbench (unlike its predecessor MySQL Administrator) does not provide any automated backup facility.

So, I decided to explore the use of “MySQLDump”, a command line routine that can be inserted into a batch file and executed as a “Scheduled Task”. “MySQLDump” is included as part of XAMPP and is found within “<path to XAMPP>\MySQL\bin\”.

Here is the basic syntax I used (from a command prompt):

<path to XAMPP>\MySQL\bin\MySQLDump –u root –p myrootpassword –result-file=”<path to Backup Folder>\MySQLDump.sql” –all-databases

I then copied this into a batch file (MySQLDump.bat) and used “System Tools => Scheduled Tasks” (Task Scheduler in Windows 7) to run the batch file each evening.

Of course, you must ensure that the “MySQLDump.sql” file itself is stored in a safe location and can be recovered in case of server failure / building loss.

A Computer Memory Primer

Here is a quick list of the different types of memory found within a typical computer workstation / server.

SRAM (Static RAM) DRAM (Dynamic RAM) DRAM DRAM DRAM DRAM DRAM DRAM DRAM
SIMM SIMM DIMM DIMM DIMM DIMM DIMM RIMM
SDR
SDRAM
DDR(1) SDRAM DDR2 SDRAM DDR3 SDRAM DDR4
SDRAM
2000 2003 2007 2012
32 Bit 32 Bit 64 Bit 64 Bit 64 Bit 64 Bit 64 Bit
1 –> 128 MB
30 Pin 72 Pin 168 Pin 184 Pin 240 Pin 240 Pin (different notch to DDR2) 284 Pin
SO-DIMM = 200 Pin SO-DIMM = 200 Pin (different notch to DDR1) SO-DIMM = 204 Pin
DDR3L is a Low Voltage Version
  • SRAM (Static RAM) is mainly used within the CPU Cache. It is faster, but more expensive to produce than DRAM.
  • DRAM (Dynamic RAM) is essentially Computer Main Memory
  • SIMM = Single Inline Memory Module
  • DIMM = Dual Inline Memory Module. These can be ECC and / or Registered (Buffered) in Servers and High End Workstations. So, “standard” DIMM modules are also known as UDIMM (Unregistered), whilst registered memory is RDIMM
  • ECC = Error Correction Code. An extra “parity” chip on the memory board is used to detect and correct errors. Due to the additional chip (and processing required), ECC RAM is both more expensive and slower than Non-ECC Memory.
  • Registered / Buffered Memory.
  • SDRAM = Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
  • SDR = Single Data Rate
  • DDR = Double Data Rate
  • SO-DIMM = Small Outline Dual Inline Memory Module (Laptop Memory)

Active Directory: Global Groups; Universal Groups and User Logon

If you are struggling to understand Global Catalog Servers (GCS); Universal Security Groups; and Group Replication, it may help to think about what is actually happening during the user logon process and why.

When a User logs onto a Microsoft Domain Network, two things need to happen. The Logon Service has to:

  1. Verify the User Credentials (Username and Password)
  2. Determine which “Security Groups” the user is a member of (this establishes the permissions they have on the network)

For the purposes of this exercise, it is the second part of the process that we are interested in.

Obtaining a list of Security Groups is an essential part of the user’s “Access Token”. The access token is generated on the fly each time the user logs onto the network. It acts as a security pass for the duration of the session. So, when the user attempts to access a resource (anywhere within the forest), the operating system compares the permissions on the user access token with the security permissions on the resource (such as a file share) in order to determine if access can be granted.

In accordance with best practices, User Accounts should only be added to Global Security Groups within their Own (Local) Domain. Global Security Groups can then be added to Universal Security Groups in order to grant permissions to resources in other Domains throughout the Forest.

The membership list of Global Groups for the user’s “Local” Domain are replicated to every Domain Controller within that Domain ONLY. So, it is a relatively easy task for the DC that is processing the logon to query its own copy of the Active Directory Database and obtain a list of all Global Groups to which that user is a member. Users cannot be members of Global Groups within other Domains, so finding those is not an issue. So far, so good.

Note: The “Access Token” includes a FULL list of all the security groups that particular user is a member of, plus all of the security groups that those groups are themselves a member of. For instance, if the user is a direct member of “G_Sales”, and “G_Sales” is in turn a member of “G_Contracts”, then BOTH groups will be individually listed on the Access Token. This is very important to remember!

That just leaves us with the task of determining which Universal Groups the user is a member of. Remember, Universal Groups grant permissions to resources within another domain in the forest.

Universal Groups membership is not stored within the database of the Local Domain, so the DC cannot simply query its own Active Directory Database – remember a DC only knows about objects within its own Domain.

Universal Groups “live” in the Forest, and their membership lists are stored on a special type of Domain Controller called a Global Catalog Server. There must be at least one Global Catalog Server (GCS) within each Forest – the very first Domain Controller within the Forest is automatically designated the role of GCS. So, the DC processing the user logon must be able to contact a GCS within the Forest to find out which Universal Groups the User is also a member of.

Note: if a GCS cannot be found, the logon process will Fail!

When all of the Group Membership information has been gathered, the “Access Token” will be generated and issued to the user account.

Access Token for “DomainA.User A”
Group Membership List:
G_Sales
G_Contracts
U_Sales

Hopefully, you can now see why it is important that ALL security groups are listed within the Access Token (even if membership is indirectly a result of “G_Sales” being a member of “G_Contracts”). If ALL Security Groups were not listed within the Access Token, the User would be denied access to “G_Contracts” and “U_Sales” resources, and would only be able to access “G_Sales” resources.

XAMPP 1.7.3 for Windows: Folder Structure

The following is a summary of the contents of each folder within a Windows XAMPP installation.

Folder Description Version Notes
Anonymous      
Apache Web Server Service 2.2.14 Configuration file is: “apache\conf\httpd.conf”
cgi-bin      
FileZillaFTP FTP Service 0.9.33 Configure using the XAMPP Console.
htdocs Web Site Pages    
install      
licenses      
MercuryMail SMTP Mail Server Service   A simpler alternative is to configure an ISP Mail Server within “php\php.ini”
MySQL MySQL Database Files 5.1.41 Configure using PHPMyAdmin
Perl Perl Scripting Language Folder 5.10.1  
PHP PHP Scripting Language Folder 5.3.1 PHP is enabled by Default. Configure within “php\php.ini”.
PHP\ext “DLL” Files   There are several “dll” files to be found with “php\ext” to support additional functionality (such as SQL Server). These are enabled / disabled within “php.ini”).
PHPMyAdmin MySQL Administration Tool 3.2.4  
Security      
Sendmail “Fake” Sendmail Application   Configure within “sendmail\sendmail.ini”. A simpler alternative is to configure an ISP Mail Server within “php\php.ini”.
Tmp      
WebAlizer Web Server Usage / Analysis Tool    
WebDAV      

 

Note: XAMPP 1.7.7 is the latest version that can be installed on Windows XP / 2003. All newer versions require Windows Vista / 2008 or newer.

Configuring Alerts within the Avast ADNM Console

In order to receive an Administrative Email Notification each time a Virus is detected by the Avast Workstation Client, it is necessary to configure the following settings within the “Avast Distributed Network Manager” (ADNM) Console:

[1] Basic SMTP Settings
Avast Alerts 003 
[2] SMTP Settings within the “Computer Catalog” Properties

Avast Alerts 001

[3] Add an SMTP Alert
Avast Alerts 004 
The “Net Alert Address” is the Address that will receive the Alert.
Avast Alerts 005 
At this point, use the “Test” Button to make sure the Alert is properly generated. A “Virus Warning” Test message should arrive at the nominated Mailbox.

[4] Configure the “On Access Scanning Tasks”

Avast Alerts 007 
This will ensure the Alert "fires” when a Virus is detected.

[5] Configure the “On Demand Scanning Tasks”

Avast Alerts 006
These should be configured in exactly the same way as the “On Demand Scanning Tasks”

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